Map of the Arabian Gulf, from Selections from the Records of the Bombay Government, vol. 24 (1856)
19th century
Object Name: Map of the Arabian Gulf
Period: 19th century
Date: 1843
Provenance: United Kingdom
Dimensions: 580 mm (H) x 925 mm (W)\xa0
Medium: paper
Registration Number: QM.2018.0139.1
Place Of Discovery/Findspot:  Qatar
This map of the Arabian Gulf shows Qais Island. Isa bin Tarif, leader of Huwailah in northern Qatar, moved to the island in 1839 following a dispute with the rulers of Bahrain.

The British government approved of this move because the island is to the south of what was known as the red line or war boundary. The British prohibited armed conflict north of this line, which ran from the north of Ras Al Khaimah to Ras Al Zour in Saudi Arabia, passing through Halul and Ras Rakan in Qatar. The line was imposed by the British to secure maritime trade routes.
Isa bin Tarif was an important leader famed for his courage, strength, wisdom and skill as a sailor. He was born in Al Zubarah in north-west Qatar around 1790 to the Al Lahdan branch of Al bin Ali tribe. When the first Saudi State took over Al Zubarah he moved first to Bahrain in 1799, and then to Huwailah, northern Qatar. He had one son, Ali bin Isa.

Isa became leader of Huwailah in 1826 where he forged strong relationships with regional powers including the Imam of Muscat, and the rulers of the First Saudi State and Abu Dhabi. In 1835, the rulers of Bahrain began to fear the growing influence of Isa, and a dispute arose. Isa moved with his tribe to Qais Island. Around the same time Isa supported the ruler of Muscat and Zanzibar in his conquest of Mombasa in east Africa. Isa returned to Oatar in 1843 and became ruler of Doha. He constructed walls and towers around the town to protect it from Bahraini attacks. He died at the Battle of Umm Suwayyah against Bahrain in 1847 This battle is known as the first destruction of Doha.
The Emergence Of Qatar By Rahman, 2005, London The Holy Sail