Overhead cloak (daffah) made from fine black wool, typically worn by women while outdoors
20th century
Object Name: Cloak (daffah)
Period: 20th century
Date: 1900-1999
Provenance: Qatar
Dimensions: H:1500-W:1685 Mm - H: centre back to bottom ham, W: cuff to cuff C:arm hole
Medium: textile,metallic thread,cotton,silk,wool
Registration Number: QNM.2012.436.1
This daffah is a cloak worn by women and consists of a rectangular piece of light wool cloth folded twice. The daffah is embroidered with gold zari around the neck . The soft black wool is embroidered in a zari motif at the back of the neckline. The motif is called taj, meaning crown, because it rests on the top of the head when a woman wears the cloak over her head. The additional zari decoration on the inside of the cloak indicates that it is for speical occasions. The decorative motifs consist mainly of stylised foliage.
The Qatar Peninsula is surrounded by sea except in the south where it connects with its neighbours from the Arabian Peninsula. For hundreds of years people have shared the land, resources and knowledge inherited from their environment. With no fixed lifestyle in terms of time and place, people moved easily and freely between land and sea for trade, livestock, pearl diving, fishing, and hunting at various times throughout the year. This symbiotic relationship between the people and their environment was represented in the unity of their societies, including the exchange of knowledge, stories and the trading of available goods.

A distinctive characteristic of life on the Qatar Peninsula has long been the close association between the coast and the desert – al barr. Some desert tribes spent several months of the year in coastal cities, setting up semi-permanent residences to participate in pearl diving or fishing. Similarly, coastal residents occasionally moved to al barr during the winter to graze their livestock. This exchange of natural resources and the influence of different environments has contributed to the creation of a unique community.
The presence of British, French and Dutch trading companies in the Gulf from the early 1600s brought uncertainty to the region, with unstable alliances and intense competition over trade routes. As trade flourished, however, the strength of the Arab tribes increased. Many Arab tribes moved from the interior of the Arabian Peninsula to Qatar, and by the 18th and 19th centuries, most of the major towns of the Gulf were founded. Several towns flourished on the Qatari coast, including Huwailah, Khor Hassan, Fuwairat, Ruwaida, Freiha, Al Bidda and Doha. The most notable was Al Zubara which became a hub for the Gulf pearl trade.